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Our Listings


 
6 photos
$529,900 CAD
"Commercial"
City Town of Valley East and Capreol
Style Single Story
Type Commercial
Taxes $6784 CAD
Listing Created 13-Jun-17
11 photos
$429,900 CAD
"Lake Front!"
City Town of Valley East and Capreol
Size 1649 sq. ft.
Style Bungalow
Type Residential
Bedrooms 3
Bathrooms 2
Taxes $6421 CAD
Listing Created 18-Jul-17
19 photos
$399,900 CAD
"Top Quality home!"
City Town of Valley East and Capreol
Size 3040 sq. ft.
Style Other
Type Residential
Bedrooms 4
Bathrooms 2
Taxes $720 CAD
Listing Created 17-Jul-17
14 photos
$399,900 CAD
"16 ACRES!"
City Town of Valley East and Capreol
Size 2750 sq. ft.
Style 2 Storey
Type Residential
Bedrooms 4
Bathrooms 3
Taxes $5160 CAD
Listing Created 25-Jul-17
17 photos

Downtown (1044944)

"INVITING AND PRIVATE SUN DECK!"
$320,000 CAD
"STUNNING 2 STORY WITH FABULOUS CITY VIEWS!"
City Sudbury
Size 2068 sq. ft.
Style 2 Story
Type Residential
Bedrooms 3
Bathrooms 2
Taxes $2946 CAD
Listing Created 16-Aug-17
8 photos

Lake Wahnapitae (1044443)

"Jump into Summer!"
$314,900 CAD
"Waterfront on Lake Wahnapitae!"
City Town of Nickel Centre
Size 1480 sq. ft.
Style 1 1/2 Story
Type Residential
Bedrooms 3
Bathrooms 2
Taxes $3539 CAD
Listing Created 07-Aug-17
15 photos
$299,900 CAD
"Well Maintained!"
City Town of Valley East and Capreol
Size 2150 sq. ft.
Style Single Story
Type Residential
Bedrooms 4
Bathrooms 2
Taxes $2859 CAD
Listing Created 24-Jul-17
18 photos
$269,900 CAD
"Triplex"
City Sudbury
Style Apartment
Type Multifamily
Taxes $3166 CAD
Listing Created 22-Jun-17
21 photos

Gatchell

"SOLID ALL BRICK HOME IN GATCHELL!"
$249,900 CAD
City Sudbury
Size 1870 sq. ft.
Style Single Story
Type Residential
Bedrooms 3
Bathrooms 2
Taxes $3120 CAD
Listing Created 18-Jul-17
13 photos
$247,700 CAD
City Town of Valley East and Capreol
Size 2200 sq. ft.
Style Bungalow
Type Residential
Bedrooms 4
Bathrooms 2
Taxes $2586 CAD
Listing Created 18-Jul-17
10 photos
$234,900 CAD
"Well Maintained Home!"
City Town of Valley East and Capreol
Size 1400 sq. ft.
Style Bungalow
Type Residential
Bedrooms 3
Bathrooms 1
Taxes $2791 CAD
Listing Created 13-Jun-17
18 photos
$209,900 CAD
City Town of Valley East and Capreol
Size 813 sq. ft.
Style Bungalow
Type Residential
Bedrooms 2
Bathrooms 2
Taxes $2184 CAD
Listing Created 18-Jul-17
6 photos
$184,900 CAD
"Estate Sale!"
City Sudbury
Size 962 sq. ft.
Style Bungalow
Type Residential
Bedrooms 3
Bathrooms 1
Taxes $2233 CAD
Listing Created 25-Jul-17
1 photos
(New Construction)

Sudbury (1042459)

$179,000 CAD
"Duplex!"
City Sudbury
Style 2 Storey
Type Multifamily
Taxes $2374 CAD
Listing Created 10-Apr-17
6 photos

Sudbury (new sudbury)

"Ideal retirement living"
$178,800 CAD
"new price"
City Sudbury
Size 1700 sq. ft.
Style 3 Story
Type Residential
Bedrooms 3
Bathrooms 2
Taxes $2513 CAD
Listing Created 28-Jun-17
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GREATER SUDBURY, ONTARIO, CANADA
Greater Sudbury (2006 census population 157,857) is a city in Ontario, Canada. Greater Sudbury was created in 2001 by merging the cities and towns of the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury, along with several previously unincorporated geographic townships.

It is the largest city in the Northern Ontario region by population, and the 24th largest metropolitan area in Canada. By land area, it is the largest city in Ontario, and the seventh largest municipality by area in Canada.

Greater Sudbury is one of only five cities in Ontario—the others are Toronto, Ottawa, Hamilton and Kawartha Lakes—that constitute their own independent census divisions, and are not part of any district, county or regional municipality.

It is also the only city in Ontario which has two official names; its name in French is Grand-Sudbury. Unlike designations such as Greater Toronto or Greater Montreal, the name "Greater Sudbury" refers to a single city, not a conurbation of independent municipalities. However, Sudbury is still the more common name for the city in everyday usage.

The city's Census Metropolitan Area consists of the city and the First Nations reserves of Whitefish Lake and Wahnapitae, and had a population of 158,258 in the 2006 census. Statistics Canada estimates the Greater Sudbury CMA's population as 165,322 as of 2009. Informally, some residents of the area may also consider the metropolitan area to include the towns of Markstay-Warren, St. Charles and French River, a region commonly known as Sudbury East, as well as the outlying unincorporated communities of Estaire and Cartier.

Urban Neighbourhoods of Greater Sudbury, ON

This is a list of neighbourhoods in the urban core of Greater Sudbury, Ontario. This list includes only those neighbourhoods that fall within the pre-2001 city limits of Sudbury — for communities within the former suburban municipalities - Old City of Sudbury, Capreol, Nickel Centre, Onaping Falls, Rayside-Balfour, Valley East, Walden, Wanup.

Downtown of Sudbury, ON

The Downtown of Sudbury is bounded by Ste. Anne Road to the north, Elgin Street to the south, Brady Street to the east and Lorne Street to the west, and includes the city's largest concentration of retail businesses and offices.

The downtown core was the city's original neighbourhood.

An urban renewal project in the 1960s saw the downtown Borgia Street neighbourhood demolished in favour of a large shopping mall facility, now known as the Rainbow Centre, a realignment and expansion of Notre Dame Avenue, and the expropriation of land for Tom Davies Square, the city's modern city hall.[ Another parcel of municipal land adjacent to the city hall was later donated by the city to the Sudbury Theatre Centre. The city also attracted national press attention in the 1970s for the creation of St. Andrews Place, a unique church facility which incorporated a chapel, retail space and a housing complex for senior citizens.

With retail businesses in the city increasingly locating outside of the downtown core, particularly in the Four Corners, Kingsway and Lasalle Boulevard areas, the city has struggled in recent years to maintain a vibrant downtown. Recent projects have included the creation of Market Square, a farmer's and craft market, the redevelopment of the Rainbow Centre mall, streetscape beautification projects, and the creation of the Downtown Village Development Corporation, a committee of business and government representatives responsible for creating and maintaining neighbourhood improvement initiatives in the downtown core. At various times, city councillors and community groups have proposed that the city purchase the CPR stockyards west of Elgin Street in order to expand the downtown area, although to date this has not been pursued.

One of Downtown Sudbury's more unusual features is a five-acre park on a hill in the southeast corner of the neighbourhood, centred on a grotto dedicated to Our Lady of Lourdes. The grotto was erected in 1907 on the private estate of Frédéric Romanet du Caillaud, a wealthy lawyer and writer from Limoges, France who became one of Sudbury's first significant private landowners after moving to the city five years earlier. After Romanet du Caillaud's death, ownership of the site passed to a local businessman's family, and then to a succession of community committees. A pathway depicting the Stations of the Cross was later added to the adjoining parkland in 1958. The site later fell into disrepair, and following a vandalism incident in 1993 it was taken over by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sault Ste. Marie, which refurbished the park and continues to operate it as a public outdoor shrine.

In 2010, the city announced that it was investigating the process of having the downtown core designated as a heritage district.

Flour Mill

The Flour Mill neighbourhood is centred on Notre Dame Avenue, immediately north of downtown Sudbury. In French, the community is known as Moulin à Fleur, which seemingly translates as "Flower Mill". In the local Franco-Ontarian dialect, however, fleur is sometimes used as a slang synonym of farine, the more standard French word for flour, in a calque derived from the fact that the words flower and flour are homonyms in English.

One of the city's first neighbourhoods outside the original settlement, the Flour Mill was historically settled by Franco-Ontarian farmers and labourers. The neighbourhood's most notable surviving building, a large flour mill silo, was operated by the Manitoba and Ontario Flour Mill company.

From the early 1900s into the 1960s, the neighbourhood was frequently flooded by spring runoff into Junction Creek. In some years, the flooding was so severe that it extended into downtown. Due to improved flood control practices, however, the neighbourhood has not experienced a significant Junction Creek flood since the 1960s.

Following the mill's closure, there were frequent proposals to demolish the silo and redevelop the property. These proposals, and their attendant controversy, continued until the silo was designated a city heritage property in 1990. The historic home of the mill's foreman was converted to a community museum, the Flour Mill Museum, in 1974.

In 2007, the neighbourhood has faced controversy as its local business improvement association has battled a city plan to widen Notre Dame Avenue, the major city arterial which passes through the neighbourhood, to six lanes to accommodate expanded traffic. The business association also launched a neighbourhood beautification plan, including adding an "avenue of trees" to Notre Dame, new benches and community banners, and the construction of a waterpark facility in the neighbourhood's O'Connor Park.

In August 2007, the city's Northern Life community newspaper published two articles calling attention to an abandoned cement factory just off a hiking trail near the neighbourhood, which had been used as an illegal dumping ground for garbage and chemicals. The factory's owners, Alexander Centre Industries, pledged to clean up the site a few days after the first article appeared, indicating that the facility had been abandoned for so long that nobody currently employed by the company even knew it existed until the controversy hit the press.

The residential Cambrian Heights neighbourhood extends northward from the Flour Mill along Cambrian Heights Drive.

New Sudbury

The New Sudbury area, centred on Lasalle Boulevard running East-West and Barrydowne Road running North-South. The area includes a mix of commercial development along Lasalle, such as the New Sudbury Centre, one of the largest shopping malls in Northern Ontario[8], and residential properties on most of the streets leading north and south. The area also includes the smaller neighbourhoods of Nickeldale, Barrydowne and Lebel.

The small industrial area immediately surrounding the Sudbury Junction railway station may also be known as Sudbury Junction.

South End

The South End of Sudbury includes the urban neighbourhoods of Robinson, Lockerby, Moonglo and Lo-Ellen. The centre of the area is the Four Corners, a major commercial shopping district centred on the intersection of Regent Street, Paris Street and Long Lake Road. The Southridge Mall, located on the southeast quadrant of the Four Corners, is currently undergoing a major expansion.

The South End is currently one of the fastest-growing areas of the city, with significant commercial and residential development taking place especially in the Algonquin Road area. A significant controversy in recent years has involved the city's construction of a rock tunnel to increase the neighbourhood's sewer capacity — after a $4 million budget shortfall in the project, the city imposed a temporary levy on new development in the area.

Highway 17, the main route of the Trans-Canada Highway, passes through the South End along the Southwest Bypass. The government of Ontario has announced that the Highway 17 route will be converted to a freeway within the next decade; the highway already follows a freeway route further west in the Walden area. In preparation for the freeway conversion, the intersection of Highway 17 and Long Lake Road has been converted to a full interchange, which opened in 2008.

There are two public high schools, Lo-Ellen Park and Lockerby, and one Catholic high school, St. Benedict, in the South End area. There are also two French-language schools in the area: École publique Hélène Gravel and École Catholine St-Denis.

The more rural McFarlane Lake and Long Lake areas may also be grouped with the South End, or may be treated as distinct neighbourhoods.

West End

The West End is the area located immediately west of downtown, at the westernmost end of the original city limits. Primarily residential in character, the neighbourhood is centred on the intersection of Elm, Regent and Beatty Streets. It includes the smaller neighbourhoods of Elm West and Little Britain.

Minnow Lake

Minnow Lake is a residential area centred on Bancroft Drive between the Kingsway (Municipal Road 55) and Second Avenue. The area east of Second Avenue is more commonly known as Adamsdale. Minnow Lake also includes the eastern half of the Howey Drive area; the small neighbourhood centred on Howey Drive between Minnow Lake and downtown is known as Brodie.

Donovan/Northern Heights

Centred on Frood Road northwest of downtown, Donovan refers to the area immediately surrounding the intersection of Frood, Kathleen and Beatty, which is one of the city's oldest neighbourhoods, while Northern Heights refers to the newer neighbourhood to the north between Frood and Burton Avenue.

Gatchell

This area is south west of downtown, nestled between the core of the city and Copper Cliff's industrial area, centred on Lorne Street between the Big Nickel and Martindale Road. This area has small 30 foot lots, built mostly in the 1920s through 1940s. There are also a large number of rental apartments in the neighbourhood. The community is still very much a 'working class" neighbourhood, though many of the homes in the area have been restored.

The community has four public elementary schools and three Catholic elementary schools.

The age of the community has a provided a number of smaller shops and services conveniently scattered throughout. It is also accessible to the shopping either downtown or along the junction of Paris and Regent Streets, where there are several shopping centres and "category killer" box stores.

The community is home to the Gatchell indoor swimming pool and Queens Athletic Park, with its track & field. Junction Creek is undergoing a transformation as the Trans-Canada Trail is being constructed through the vacant lands along its banks. The location on the western edge of Sudbury gives it ready access to the Fielding Bird Sanctuary and Fielding Park along Kelley Lake, to the south west. The neighbourhood's primary feature is Delki Dozzi Park, a park and sports complex which defines almost the entire northern boundary of the neighbourhood.

Copper Cliff

Copper Cliff was incorporated as a separate company town in 1901, and for a time was in fact larger than the neighbouring community of Sudbury. However, Sudbury had surpassed Copper Cliff in population by 1930, when Sudbury was reincorporated as a city. The city of Sudbury tried to annex Copper Cliff a number of times over the next 40 years, but was rebuffed by the Ontario Municipal Board because the city's desire to gain municipal taxation rights over Inco's mining facilities in the community was deemed incompatible with federal and provincial taxation rules around the mining industry. The neighbourhood was eventually annexed by the city in 1973, as part of the provincially mandated municipal restructuring which resulted in the creation of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury.

However, in many respects it continued to be treated as a distinct community, rather than as part of the city — for example, postal service in Copper Cliff was never integrated into the city's urban forward sortation areas. Instead, Copper Cliff retained a rural P0M postal code.

Vale Inco's operations in the city are headquartered in the Copper Cliff area. Most notably, Copper Cliff is the location of the Inco Superstack, the tallest chimney in the Western Hemisphere, which towers over Inco's main smelter facility.

A local community museum, the Copper Cliff Museum, is located on the site of the very first homestead in what is now Copper Cliff.

The community is now located in Ward 2 on Greater Sudbury City Council, along with the former town of Walden.

Capreol, Greater Sudbury, Ontario

Capreol is a community in the Ontario city of Greater Sudbury. From 1918 to 2000, Capreol existed as an independent town, situated on the Vermilion River. On January 1, 2001, the towns and cities of the Regional Municipality were amalgamated into the single-tier city of Greater Sudbury.

In 1996, the last Canadian census before the municipal amalgamation, Capreol had a population of 3,817.

History

Capreol formed around the Capreol railway station which was a major divisional point on the Canadian National Railway line, and was named for Frederick Chase Capreol, the original promoter of the Northern Railway of Canada. The first family to move into Capreol was Adolph and Margaret Sawyer, both of whom pioneered in farming.

Although the town was originally an independent community with its own thriving economy, it gradually became a satellite community to the more rapidly growing city of Sudbury, approximately 40 kilometres to the south. In 1916, there were thirty families in town, and by 1919, sixty houses had been built. It was then decided that Capreol would build its own YMCA. In 1920, the construction of the YMCA was in progress, but was damaged by fire, to the extent of $40,000.00. The YMCA was rebuilt at double the cost and finally opened in 1921.

In 1973, the boundaries of the town of Capreol were expanded to include the nearby villages of Sellwood and Milnet, and the town was incorporated into the Regional Municipality of Sudbury. However, despite its status as part of the Regional Municipality, Statistics Canada did not include the town in Sudbury's Census Metropolitan Area for census purposes.

The town is part of Ward 7 on Greater Sudbury City Council, and is represented by councillor Russ Thompson. In recent years, Capreol citizens have voiced their concerns that the city government does not adequately serve the community's needs. For example, they cite lack of a police presence and increasing vandalism as areas that Sudbury needs to improve on.

Sports and culture

Capreol is the location of the Northern Ontario Railroad Museum.

From 1978 to 1986, Capreol had a Northern Ontario Junior Hockey League team called the Capreol Hawks, who won the league title in 1980-81.

Ghost towns

The former villages of Milnet and Sellwood, located within the area annexed by Capreol in 1973, are both now ghost towns.

Milnet (originally named Sellwood Junction up to 1916) began as a stop along the Canadian Northern Railway. In 1917, after the railway was laid down, the Marshay Lumber Company built a mill and began a 22-year process of cutting trees from the area. Men from logging camps upstream would let the Vermilion River carry the logs to the mill in Milnet. From there the men at the mill would cut the wood on the blade and then move it along to the planar mill.

An open pit mine now stands where the Sellwood townsite once was.

Happy Valley, Greater Sudbury, Ontario

Happy Valley is a ghost town in the city of Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The community was first inhabited in 1906 by workers from the nearby mine at Garson. Not wanting to live in a state of dependency in the company town, they built this smaller town of humble shacks with narrow streets. The settlement began when George Ruff made his home in the area. By 1911, Ruff was joined by two neighbours, Bill Chasty and Edgar Moore, who also purchased property in the area and began to build homes. The three families brought the population to approximately 15 residents.

The area was originally given the name Spruce Valley for the trees which lined the streets. The trees created an almost branch-entwined tunnel along the roadway. The people of Spruce Valley built quite simple homes on narrow streets. The name of the town was eventually changed to Happy Valley after a gentleman named Happy Day (or Hap Day as he was referred to), who bought a large portion of the land in the valley.[citation needed] People would say that it was Hap's Valley, and eventually the name Spruce Valley was lost.

The early residents were mainly farmers and mill-workers who worked at the sawmills by the lake. The children had to endure a three-mile walk every morning to the school (established in 1907) in Garson. It was a difficult walk in winter, with temperatures as low as -40 degrees and waist-deep snow. Sometimes the children were fortunate enough to be able to take a horse-drawn cutter to school.

In 1912 the Ruff family suffered the loss of their child. The family buried their child in a plot of land which would become the community cemetery. The Pioneer Ruff Cemetery still bears the Ruff name and remains in fair condition. Other than the mills and homes, there were no stores or a post office to be found. Residents had to travel to Falconbridge Township for amenities. In 1915, the E.J. Longyear company had discovered large ore samples during test drilling in the Falconbridge Township area. The area would not be further developed until 1928 but would play a vital role in Spruce Valley's future. By the mid 1920's, the population of Spruce Valley had risen to approximately 50 residents. In 1928, businessman Thayer Lindsley purchased the rights to the land previously drilled for ore during 1915. Lindsley's purchase would be the basis for founding Falconbridge Nickel Mines Limited. The mine then set about building a town to house the workers and named the town Falconbridge after the township in which it resided.

When Falconbridge Mine opened, mine management and supervisors lived in Falconbridge homes in case they were called to the mine for an emergency. Approximately a dozen mine workers settled for homes in Spruce Valley. In 1930, the Garson Mine shut down, and the workers were transferred to the mines at Falconbridge. By then, Falconbridge Nickel Mines was removing 250 tonnes of ore a day. To process the ore, a smeltering plant was constructed which began operating in 1932. It was also during 1932 that a school opened in Falconbridge which made the children's daily walk much shorter.

Due to temperature inversions, the smelter at Falconbridge created severe pollution problems in Happy Valley, as heavy sulphur emissions from the smelter would become trapped in the valley. The lush trees, which filled the valley, died. For years, workers suspected that they were being poisoned by pollution, and these fears were confirmed in the 60s and 70s as society grew more environment-conscious. For several years, the community reached a deal with Falconbridge that the smelter would not operate on days when a north wind was blowing. This arrangement worked well until the war began. With the war, the mine was in demand to produce precious metal. This meant they had to smelt no matter what wind conditions were. The workers eventually took Falconbridge to court over the sulphuric fumes. Residents argued that Happy Valley was present before Falconbridge mine. The court however, sided with Falconbridge Mine as claims had been made to the area long before Happy Valley existed. With this settlement, the farmers threw in the towel and began the process of moving out. The miners on the other hand chose to remain in the town. By the late 1940s, the town had been reduced to two dozen homes situated along the two main streets. Eventually the company simply bought out the town, which was entirely abandoned in the late 1960s. Some people traded their homes for a home in Falconbridge; others took cash. Today the valley remains desert-like and dead because of pollution.

By 1970, the town was essentially abandoned. From 1973 to 2000, the Happy Valley site was part of the town of Nickel Centre, in the Regional Municipality of Sudbury. On January 1, 2001, the Regional Municipality was dissolved into the single-tier City of Greater Sudbury. The area is fenced and off-limits to the public.

Nickel Centre, Greater Sudbury, Ontario

Nickel Centre (1996 census population 13,017) was a town in Ontario, Canada, which existed from 1973 to 2000.

It was created as part of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury. On January 1, 2001, the town and the Regional Municipality were dissolved and amalgamated into the city of Greater Sudbury. The town is now divided between Wards 7 and 9 on Greater Sudbury City Council, and is represented by councillors Russ Thompson and Doug Craig.

Communities

Coniston

Coniston was part of the Township of Neelon, which was incorporated in March 1905. Coniston was subsequently incorporated under the provisions of the Municipal Act by Ontario Municipal Board Order A4741 on January 1, 1934, and remained such until the establishment of regional government. Prior to its annexation into Nickel Centre, the town's mayors were Edgar Taylor Austin (1934-46), Roy Snitch (1947-52), Walter Kilimnik (1953-57), William Evershed (1958-59), Maurice Beauchemin (1960-62) and Mike Solski (1963-72). Solski, the final mayor of Coniston as an independent town, won election to the mayoralty of the amalgamated town of Nickel Centre in 1972.

Notable residents of Coniston have included hockey players Neal Martin, Noel Price, Toe Blake, Jim Fox and Andy Barbe, as well as many other great hockey players. Address and telephone service in Coniston also includes the smaller neighbourhood of Austin, which may also be known as Old Coniston. This area borders Highway 17 and is home to a baseball field.

Residents of Coniston are conveniently located close to the Coniston Mall. The mall has a Valu-Mart, a Beer Store, a Caisse Populaire Bank, a Chinese and Canadian food restaurant, a Pharmacy and an LCBO. The Coniston Mall donates to the community by supporting Minor Hockey. The mall is at the main intersection in Coniston at Highway 17 (Trans-Canada Highway) and Second Avenue.

Falconbridge

The geographic township of Falconbridge was named in the 1880s for William Glenholm Falconbridge, a justice of the High Court of Ontario. The original settlement in the township was a small lumber camp.

A significant ore body was discovered in 1902 by Thomas Edison near what is now Falconbridge's Centennial Park.[1] Edison was unsuccessful in establishing a mining operation, and abandoned his original claim in 1903. The claim reverted to Crown land until the Longyear Drilling Company bought it in 1911. Longyear subsequently merged with other small mining companies in the area to form the basis of what would ultimately become Falconbridge Ltd., although actual mining operations in the community did not begin until 1928, when Thayer Lindsley purchased the company for $2,500,000 and finally sunk the Falconbridge deposit's first mine shaft the following year.

Falconbridge Ltd. built the Edison Building in 1969 to serve as its head office. Falconbridge Ltd. was taken over by Swiss mining company Xstrata in 2006. In 2007, Xstrata donated the Edison Building to the city to serve as the new home of the municipal archives.

Falconbridge was incorporated as a town in 1957. The town's first and only reeve, John Franklin, served until the creation of Nickel Centre in 1973.

A visual and radar UFO incident occurred in the community on November 11, 1975, later reported in a press release by NORAD. The object was tracked on radar from CFS Falconbridge and sighted in binoculars, and estimated to be a 100-ft. diametre sphere with craters. Seven OPP police officers also witnessed the UFO. Some explanations given for the sightings included Venus, clouds, and/or weather balloons.

Garson

The community is named after the geographic township of Garson, named by the Ontario Government in the 1880s for William Garson, who represented Lincoln in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1886 to 1890.

The area was first developed in 1888 as a logging camp, by the Holland and Emery Lumber Company of East Tawas, Michigan. In that year this firm constructed a narrow gauge logging railway from Wahnapitae, establishing its main operations at Headquarters Lake, near the Garson townsite. Logs from this area were taken to the Wanapitei River and driven to Lake Huron. Eventually this track was extended north into Capreol Township.

The Canadian Northern Railway was built through Garson in 1908.

Garson Mine, which is now owned by Vale Inco was first developed in 1911 by the Mond Nickel Company. The defunct Kirkwood Mine was also located in Garson.

Skead

Skead is located approximately 25 kilometres northeast of downtown Sudbury, and situated on south shore of Lake Wanapitei. Home to over 600 year round residents, Skead was settled about 1921 as a sawmill community, when the Spanish River Lumber Company relocated there from its original mill site, near the mouth of the Spanish River. It was named by the firm's general manager W. J. Bell, in honour of his late father-in-law, Canadian Senator James Skead.

Skead's address and telephone service also includes the smaller neighbourhood of Bowland's Bay.

Wahnapitae

The community takes its name from the Wanapitei River, which flows through Wahnapitae, and whose name in turn comes from the Ojibwe word waanabidebiing, which means "concave-tooth [shaped] water" and describes the shape of Lake Wanapitei. The correct spelling of the community's name should not be confused with the correct spelling for the water bodies.

Ghost town

Happy Valley

The ghost town of Happy Valley, originally known as Spruce Valley, was first inhabited in 1906 by workers from the nearby mine at Garson. Not wanting to live in a state of dependency in the company town, they built this smaller town of humble shacks with narrow streets. In 1930, the Garson Mine shut down, and the workers were transferred to the mines at Falconbridge.

However, due to temperature inversions, the smelter at Falconbridge created severe pollution problems in Happy Valley, as heavy sulphur emissions from the smelter would become trapped in the valley. For years, workers suspected that they were being poisoned by pollution, and these fears were confirmed in the 60s and 70s as society grew more environment-conscious. For several years, the community reached a deal with Falconbridge that the smelter would not operate on days when a north wind was blowing. Eventually the company simply bought out the town, which was entirely abandoned in the late 1960s. Today the valley remains desert-like and dead because of pollution.

Transportation

The Greater Sudbury Airport, the city's main airport, is located in Nickel Centre approximately halfway between Falconbridge and Skead, although its official mailing address is in Garson.

Highway 17, the main route of the Trans-Canada Highway, passes through Coniston and Wahnapitae. Highway 17's freeway segment in the Walden area is slated to be expanded to Coniston in the early 2010s along the Southwest and Southeast Bypass route. Future expansion of the freeway through Nickel Centre is scheduled to take place on a new alignment north of the current route of Highway 17, although no route plan has been finalized as of 2009.

Onaping Falls, Greater Sudbury, Ontario

Onaping Falls (1996 census population 5,277) was a town in the Canadian province of Ontario, which existed from 1973 to 2000. It was created as part of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury, and took its name from the waterfalls on the Onaping River.

On January 1, 2001, the town and the Regional Municipality were dissolved and amalgamated into the city of Greater Sudbury. The town is now part of Ward 3 on Greater Sudbury City Council, and is represented by councillor Claude Berthiaume.

Communities

Onaping Falls is an amalgamation of three local communities, Dowling, Onaping and Levack. Dowling is located 11 km from Onaping along Highway 144, while Levack is located north of the highway along Municipal Road 8. The smaller subdivisions of Levack Station and Phelans are also located along Highway 144 between Dowling and Onaping.

The area is known for its recreational abundance; fishing, hunting, snowmobiling, cross-country and downhill skiing and most other recreational sports are common activities of the residents.

It has become famous for High Falls, where the Onaping River drops 46 metres in a single plunge. The town is at the point where the Canadian Shield meets the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive, caused by a meteorite strike two billion years ago. There is a lookout off Highway 144 called the A. Y. Jackson Lookout, for the famous Group of Seven artist who memorialized the view on his canvas.

The town is also home to Windy Lake Provincial Park.

History

Prior to the early 1970s, the communities of Onaping Falls were company towns with no direct municipal government.

With the advent of regional government in 1973, the town of Onaping Falls became a part of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury, which also included the towns of Rayside-Balfour, Nickel Centre, Walden, Valley East and Capreol. The name "Onaping Falls" was chosen electorally between three contentious names: Levack, Onaping Falls and Whitefish.

The first mayor of Onaping Falls was Jim Coady, for whom the ice arena in Levack is named. Other mayors of Onaping Falls between 1973 and absorption into the City of Greater Sudbury were Bob Parker, Shirley Mirka and Jean Guy "Chummy" Quesnel.

Politics

Onaping Falls is currently part of Ward 3 on Greater Sudbury City Council, along with much of the former town of Rayside-Balfour. In a report on improvements to Greater Sudbury's municipal governance in 2007, Floyd Laughren recommended that Onaping Falls be reconstituted as its own ward on city council.

Rayside-Balfour, Greater Sudbury, Ontario

Rayside-Balfour (1996 census population 16,050) was a town in Ontario, Canada, which existed from 1973 to 2000.

It was created as part of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury. The town took its name from the geographic townships of Rayside and Balfour, which fell within the boundaries of the new town.

Although the Regional Municipality of Sudbury was a very important centre of Franco-Ontarian population and culture, Rayside-Balfour was the only town in the regional municipality which had a majority francophone population.

On January 1, 2001, the town and the Regional Municipality were dissolved and amalgamated into the city of Greater Sudbury. The Rayside-Balfour area is now divided between Wards 3 and 4 on Greater Sudbury City Council, and is represented by councillors Claude Berthiaume and Evelyn Dutrisac.

In 2006, there was interest in the de-amalgamation of the former town of Rayside-Balfour from the City of Greater Sudbury. However, as any referendum on the matter would require the consent of the provincial government, any such move is not likely take place.

Communities

Azilda

Azilda gets its name from Azilda Belanger, the first female pioneer of the area. The community borders the eastern shore of Whitewater Lake.

Municipal Road 35, linking Azilda to downtown Sudbury, has been increased from two lanes to four lanes, which improved the commute for Azilda's workers, who are mostly employed in the city's urban core. In addition, it shortens the travel time for tourists hoping to visit Sudbury Downs, which is located in the outskirts of Azilda. There are future plans to complete the widening of Municipal Road 35 between Azilda and Chelmsford, although the start of the construction has not yet been determined.

On September 12, 1906, Azilda was the site of a train wreck.

Azilda's telephone and postal service also includes the smaller local neighbourhoods of Belanger and Simard.

Chelmsford

Founded in 1868, Chelmsford started out as an outpost on the Canadian Pacific Railway. Some say Chelmsford was named by one the Canadian Pacific Railway engineers, who was from the United Kingdom. As with many communities in Northern Ontario, logging and fur trapping were the first industries. Having depleted the lumber in the early 1900s, Chelmsford turned to mining and agriculture to support the town's economy. Errington Mine and Nickel Offset mine were two of the largest mines in Chelmsford and both closed in the 1930s.

Today, Chelmsford has no major industries and is mostly a residential community. Although there are still some farms producing mostly potatoes, small fruits and corn, it is mostly supported by the mining activities in the nearby communities of Onaping Falls and Copper Cliff.

Postal delivery and telephone service in Chelmsford also includes the smaller neighbourhoods of Boninville, Hull and Larchwood.

Chelmsford is host to an annual fiddle festival, Fiddle Works, in May.

Education

There are two francophone schools (École publique Franco-Nord and École catholique Ste-Marie) in Azilda. All anglophone students must attend a school in Chelmsford or Valley East.

Chelmsford is home to two secondary schools: Chelmsford Valley District Composite School in which is a French immersion and English high school, specializing in technology and the trades with an excellent STAR (Science and Tech Achieving Results) academic programme. CVDCS' motto is "The Place to Be". École secondaire catholique Champlain is the francophone high school in the area, which serves the former towns of Rayside-Balfour and Onaping Falls.

Chelmsford is also home to a new elementary school, École Alliance St-Joseph. The school, part of the Conseil scolaire de district catholique du Nouvel-Ontario, services the francophone community and is the largest population-wise in the entire City of Greater Sudbury, amalgamated three separate French catholic elementary schools: St-Joseph, Jacques-Cartier and Monseigneur Côté. The school uses advanced technology in the classroom, and provides its students with portable computers for in-class use.

The community is also home to a French public school, Pavillon-de-l'Avenir, which is housed in the former Collège Rayside-Balfour section of the Chelmsford Valley District Composite School building.

Valley East, Greater Sudbury, Ontario

Valley East was a town in Ontario, Canada, which existed from 1973 to 2000.

It was created as part of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury, and took its name from the fact that it comprised the eastern half of the Sudbury Basin.

It was the largest of the six towns in the Regional Municipality, and due to population growth, was reincorporated as a city in 1997. On January 1, 2001, the city and the Regional Municipality were dissolved and amalgamated into the city of Greater Sudbury.

Before the amalgamation, Valley East was Northern Ontario's sixth largest city, ranking after Timmins and before Kenora. In 2001, the last Canadian census that recorded Valley East as a separate entity, the city had a population of 22,374.

Valley East is now divided between Wards 5 and 6 on Greater Sudbury City Council, and is represented by councillors Ron Dupuis and André Rivest.

 Communities

Blezard Valley

Blezard Valley is located in the geographic township of Blezard, and was named in the 1880s for Thomas Blezard.

Hanmer

The township of Hanmer has been around since the early 1900s and now has three churches, four secondary schools, six elementary schools and two malls.

Val Caron

Notable residents of Val Caron include former NHL player Ron Duguay, and NHL hockey player Andrew Brunette. Address and telephone service in Val Caron also includes the smaller neighbourhoods of Flake, Guilletville, Laurentian and McCrea Heights.

Val Thérèse

Address and telephone service in Val Thérèse also includes Elmview.

Theatre

The Valley East Community Theatre was founded in 1998 by Marcel Gauthier and Ron Babbin. The theater group has staged over 15 productions.

Education

The former city has an important francophone community. It houses two francophone secondary schools, as well as two anglophone secondary schools, the second of which opened after the amalgamation into Greater Sudbury.

Confederation Secondary School (English Public School - Val Caron)

École Secondaire Catholique L'Horizon (French Catholic School - Val Caron)

École Secondaire Hanmer (French Public School - Hanmer)

Bishop Alexander Carter Catholic Secondary School (English Catholic School - Hanmer)

Walden, Greater Sudbury, Ontario

Walden (Canada 1996 Census population 10,292) was a town in the Canadian province of Ontario, existing from 1973 to 2000. Created as part of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury when regional government was introduced, the town was dissolved when the city of Greater Sudbury was incorporated on January 1, 2001. The name Walden continues to be informally used to designate the area.

Walden now constitutes most of Ward 2 on Greater Sudbury City Council, and is represented by councillor Jacques Barbeau. The entirety of Walden was also redistricted into the federal Sudbury electoral district as of the 2004 election, although it remains in the provincial constituency of Nickel Belt.

History

The town was created by amalgamating the township municipalities of Waters and Drury, Dennison & Graham with the unincorporated geographic townships of Lorne, Louise and Dieppe and parts of the unincorporated townships of Hyman, Trill, Fairbank, Creighton, Snider and Eden. The name "Walden" was chosen as an acronym of Waters, Lively and Dennison. Other names were suggested, but the final selection process had narrowed the naming options to Walden or Makada, an Ojibwe name for the town's Black Lake (makade in contemporary spelling).

Tom Davies, who later became chair of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury, was the first mayor of Walden as a town. Later mayors included Charles White, Terry Kett and Dick Johnstone. Following Davies' retirement as chair of the regional municipality in 1997, Sudbury's city hall was renamed Tom Davies Square in his honour.

Prior to the municipal amalgamation, Walden was the largest town by land area in Canada.

Communities

Lively

The administrative and commercial centre of Walden, Lively was established in the 1950s as a company townsite for employees of INCO's Creighton Mine facilities. It was named for an early settler, Charles Lively. Prior to the community's establishment, a few family farms were located in the area. The most notable of these, the Anderson Farm, is now a community museum. Lively's postal delivery and telephone exchange also include the Mikkola subdivision, located at the eastern terminus of Highway 17's freeway segment, and the Waters area.

From the intersection of Municipal Roads 24 and 55, Lively refers to the area extending north along MR 24, Mikkola refers to the area extending eastward along MR 55 toward the Highway 17 interchange, and Waters refers to the area extending westward along MR 55 toward Naughton.

Lively was the first area hit by the Sudbury tornado on August 20, 1970.

Lively is also home to the Walden area's branch of the Greater Sudbury Public Library.

Naughton

Originally established as McNaughtonville, Naughton is the birthplace of Boston Bruins legend Art Ross. In 1947, Ross donated the NHL trophy bearing his name awarded to the player scoring the most points during the season. Ross was also inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1945.

Naughton is also home to historical plaques commemorating Salter's Meridian, a survey line which resulted in the first known evidence of the Sudbury area's massive mineral deposits, and the Hudson's Bay Company's historic Whitefish Lake Trading Post.

Whitefish

Whitefish is located approximately 14 kilometres west of Lively, near the western terminus of the Highway 17 freeway route. Whitefish's postal delivery and telephone exchange also include the community of Den-Lou and the Lake Panache area. Currently, the Ontario Ministry of Transportation is undergoing discussion in regards to extending the freeway through Den-Lou.

Beaver Lake

The name "Beaver Lake" refers, generally, to the westernmost end of the former Town of Walden, along Highway 17 in the geographic township of Lorne, west of Whitefish. Like many communities in Northern Ontario, the modern history of Beaver Lake started with the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway through the area in the late 1880s. With the discovery of nickel deposits bringing jobs and settlers to the Sudbury area, Finnish immigrants in particular settled in the Beaver Lake area, south of the CPR line between Sudbury and Sault Ste. Marie. Many roads in the area have Finnish names to this day.

Worthington

Incorporated as a mining community in 1892, the original Worthington existed until October 4, 1927. At 5:50 a.m. that morning, a ground fault gave way, causing the mine and part of the town to collapse into a large chasm. Nobody died in the incident, however, as a mine foreman evacuated the town the previous evening after noticing abnormal rock shifts in the mine.

With the mine no longer operational, the residents of Worthington moved to other mining communities in the area. However, the name Worthington was later reapplied to a newer townsite nearby. The original townsite is now under water.

Ghost towns

Creighton Mine

Creighton Mine, also known as simply Creighton, is a ghost town located near the intersection of Municipal Road 24 and Highway 144. The community, established in 1900 as an Inco company town, took its name from the geographic township in which it is located, which was named by the province of Ontario in the 1880s for MPP David Creighton.

In 1986, the town was closed down. INCO deemed the cost of service upgrades (water, sewer, etc.) to be prohibitive, and all of the town's homes and businesses were torn down or moved to Lively. The historic paymaster's cabin from Creighton was moved to the Anderson Farm Museum. A few streets, sidewalks and building foundations can still be found in the area.[2] A monument, shown at right, was also placed in the community.

Creighton Mine is the largest Ontario community to have become a ghost town, although the mine itself is still operational.[3] The mine is also the site of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

High Falls

High Falls is a ghost town located near the junction of the Spanish River with Agnew Lake, at the westernmost boundary of the city.

The town was incorporated in 1904, when a hydroelectric dam and power plant were built on the Spanish River. This power plant, owned and operated by a subsidiary of Inco, supplied electric power to many of the area's mining towns, and is still operational today.

The town was closely connected to the nearby community of Turbine. However, in the 1960s, many families began to move away from the community for economic reasons, and by 1975 the community was virtually abandoned. Homes were demolished or relocated, and by the mid-1980s the power plant was the only remaining vestige of the community.

Victoria Mines

Prospected heavily in the 1880s and 1890s, a mine was established by the Mond Nickel Company in 1900. A smelter was also built on the site to the north of the Canadian Pacific Railway line, and a company town that housed anywhere from 300 to 600 people during its lifetime sprang up rapidly.

In the early 1910s, Mond Nickel moved its operations to the fledgling community of Coniston, east of Sudbury. Many of the buildings of Victoria Mines were moved to Coniston via the CP Rail line, including a Presbyterian church that remains standing. Only two buildings remain intact on the site, the town mostly left abandoned after the mine's closure in 1913. During its lifetime, the mine produced almost 620,000 tons of ore.

Victoria Mines is the birthplace of Hockey Hall of Famer, Hector "Toe" Blake.

Education

Lively is home to the Walden area's only public high school, Lively District Secondary School. Catholic high school students in Walden are bused into schools in the city's urban core, primarily to St. Benedict Catholic Secondary School for anglophones and Collège Notre-Dame for francophones.

Anglophone elementary school students are served by Walden Public School in Lively, R. H. Murray Public School in Whitefish, and the Catholic St. James Elementary School in Lively. A second Catholic elementary school, Our Lady of Fatima in Naughton, closed in 2006 after renovations at St. James meant that the latter school could now accommodate virtually all of Walden's demand for Catholic primary education. The Our Lady of Fatima building was subsequently acquired by Penguin Research Technologies, a mining technology firm conducting research and development in the field of telerobotics. 

George Vanier Public School in Lively and Jessie Hamilton Public School closed in 2009, and students attending both schools were split between the new Walden Public School and Lively District Secondary School.

Francophone elementary students attend École Saint-Paul in Lively.

Wanup, Greater Sudbury, Ontario

Wanup is a community in the Ontario city of Greater Sudbury. Formerly an unincorporated community in the geographic township of Dill, Wanup was annexed into Greater Sudbury on January 1, 2001 when that city was created by amalgamating the former Regional Municipality of Sudbury.

The community is located along Municipal Road 537, near the interchange with Highway 69. The smaller neighbourhood of St. Cloud, which is treated as part of Wanup for postal delivery and telephone exchange purposes, is located a few kilometres north of Wanup in the former geographic township of Cleland.

History

Settlement of Wanup dates back to the early 1900s, when large numbers of Finns arrived in Canada. Leaving their homeland to escape the political instability of the time and the spectre of war with Russia many Finns chose this area to resume their primarily agricultural lifestyles. This area was popular among the Finns due to the geographical similarities with many parts of Finland. Another important factor was the abundance of available work from the construction of the CN and CP rail lines which pass through the area. Wanup has acted as base for many generations of Finnish Canadians and still retains a high number of Finnish families.

Sudbury, Greater Sudbury, Ontario

History

Originally named Sainte-Anne-des-Pins ("St. Anne of the Pines"), the community started as a small lumber camp in McKim township. During construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1883, blasting and excavation revealed high concentrations of nickel-copper ore at Murray Mine on the edge of the Sudbury Basin. Earlier, in 1856, provincial land surveyor Albert Salter had located magnetic anomalies in the area that were strongly suggestive of mineral deposits, although his discovery aroused little attention because the area was remote. However, the railway construction made large-scale mining development in the area economically feasible for the first time.

The community was renamed for Sudbury, Suffolk in England, the hometown of CPR commissioner James Worthington's wife. The original settlement at Sudbury was not strongly associated with the mines, but served primarily as a transportation hub and a commercial centre for the separate mining camps and farming communities that surrounded it—miners only began residing in Sudbury itself later on, as improvements to the area's transportation network made it possible for workers to live in one community and work in another. Sudbury was incorporated as a town in 1893, and its first mayor was Stephen Fournier.

Thomas Edison visited the Sudbury area as a prospector in 1901, and is credited with the original discovery of the ore body at Falconbridge.

Through the decades that followed, Sudbury's economy went through boom and bust cycles as world demand for nickel rose and fell. Demand was high during the First World War, when Sudbury-mined nickel was used extensively in the manufacture of artillery in Sheffield, England. It bottomed out when the war ended, and then rose again in the mid-1920s as peacetime uses for nickel began to develop.

The town was reincorporated as a city in 1930.

Demand for nickel in the 1930s was such that after an early slowdown, the city recovered from the Great Depression much more quickly than almost any other city in North America, and was for much of that decade the fastest-growing city in all of Canada and one of the wealthiest—to the point that most of the city's social problems in the Depression era were caused not by unemployment, but by the fact that the city was growing so rapidly that it had difficulty keeping up with all of its new infrastructure demands, such as housing, roads, sewers and public transit. Between 1936 and 1941, the city was in fact ordered into receivership by the Ontario Municipal Board. Notably, the city's former mayor William Marr Brodie had himself been appointed to the Ontario Municipal Board in 1934; in their book Sudbury: Rail Town to Regional Capital, historians C. M. Wallace and Ashley Thomson theorize that Brodie lobbied for the receivership order to protect the city from excessive debts and expenditures, even though several other cities in Ontario which were not placed into receivership were technically in much worse financial shape.

World War II

Another brief economic slowdown hit the city in 1937, although the city's fortunes rose again during the Second World War. The Frood Mine alone accounted for 40 per cent of all the nickel used in Allied artillery production during the war. After the end of that war, however, Sudbury was in a good position to supply nickel to the United States government when it decided to stockpile non-Soviet supplies during the Cold War.

In 1940, Sudbury became the first city in Canada to install parking meters.

Robert Carlin, a prominent Mine Mill organizer, was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1943 as the city's first-ever Co-operative Commonwealth Federation representative, although he was later expelled by the party for not sufficiently denouncing the purported—and vastly overstated—prominence of Communists in the union.

In 1956, the Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers held their Canadian convention in Sudbury, which was noted for hosting the first concert given by Paul Robeson outside of the United States after the American government instituted its travel ban against him. Also that year, the city approved a natural gas contract with Northern Ontario Natural Gas—the city's mayor at the time, Leo Landreville, was later forced to resign from the Supreme Court of Ontario bench after allegations that he had received stock favours in exchange for the contract.

On August 20, 1970, a tornado struck the city and its suburbs, killing six people and remaining the eighth deadliest tornado in Canadian history.

Municipal structure

In 1973, the city and its suburban communities were reorganized into the Regional Municipality of Sudbury. The former regional municipality was subsequently merged in 2001 into the single-tier city of Greater Sudbury.

In 2006, there was renewed debate on the municipal amalgamation. Many residents of the former town of Rayside-Balfour, were unhappy with their position in the city, and lobbied for a deamalgamation referendum during the 2006 municipal election. City council refused to endorse such a referendum, although even with the council's endorsement a vote would still have to be approved by the provincial Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing. In 2006, then-Mayor David Courtemanche appointed former MPP Floyd Laughren to chair an advisory committee to review and make recommendations to improve the quality of city services to the outlying communities. Laughren submitted his final report on January 10, 2007, making 34 recommendations for improvements in the city's municipal ward structure, communications, transportation, recreation and transit services.

Economy

Labour issues have been Sudbury's dominant economic challenge. On April 21, 1944, the city's mine workers were unionized for the first time with the certification of the Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers Local 598. Inco and Falconbridge each set up their own puppet unions, the United Copper Nickel Workers Union at Inco and the Falconbridge Workers Council at Falconbridge, in an attempt to destabilize the Mine Mill, but the company efforts were largely rejected by workers—the United Copper Nickel Workers, in particular, became better known as "Nickel Rash".

In the 1950s and 60s, Sudbury was beset by extensive labour unrest, experiencing its first strike by mine workers in 1958. Smaller strikes also took place in 1966 and 1969.

The United Steelworkers had also set their sights on raiding the Mine Mill locals, and there was often violence in the streets as the rival factions confronted each other—notably, a Mine Mill meeting at the Sudbury Arena, discussing whether to join the Steelworkers, erupted into a riot on September 10, 1961. Ultimately, the two unions settled into an uneasy truce, with Mine Mill winning the right to unionize Falconbridge, and the Steelworkers winning the right to unionize Inco. The national Mine Mill organization eventually merged into the Steelworkers in 1967—most of the Mine Mill locals remaining in Sudbury followed, although Local 598 voted against the merger and remained an independent autonomous local until becoming part of the Canadian Auto Workers in 1993.

In 1978, Inco workers embarked on a strike over production and employment cutbacks. The strike, which lasted for nine full months, badly damaged Sudbury's economy and spurred the city government to launch a project to diversify the city's economy. Through an aggressive strategy, the city tried to attract new employers and industries through the 1980s and 1990s. The city's strategies were not always successful; one particularly noted boondoggle saw substantial municipal funding given to a failed angora goat farm.

The city's economic growth has also been hindered at times by taxation issues: because of federal corporate taxation rules pertaining to natural resources companies, Sudbury's ability to directly levy municipal taxes on Inco and Falconbridge is severely curtailed, compared to most cities whose major employers operate in other industries. As early as 1954, the Sudbury Star was referring to Sudbury as "a city without a city's birthright", because of this taxation barrier. Prior to the creation of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury in 1973, the city could not in fact levy any taxes against the mining companies at all, because the Ontario Municipal Board consistently denied the city's requests to annex the outlying company towns, such as Copper Cliff, Coniston, Frood Mine or Falconbridge, where the mining facilities were actually located.

This fact sometimes left the city without a sufficient tax base to adequately maintain or improve municipal services—at one point, in fact, Sudbury offered the fewest municipal services of any city of comparable size in Ontario, despite having residential property tax rates fully 20 per cent higher than any of the same cities. For example, the city did not maintain a public transit system until 1972, instead relying on a succession of private operators—which were eventually consolidated under the ownership of Paul Desmarais—to provide bus services to commuters. The city only took over the system after a public outcry following an incident in which several students en route to classes at Laurentian University were hospitalized for carbon monoxide inhalation when their bus stalled and exhaust leaked into the vehicle.

In the 1950s, the provincial government began providing the city with an annual grant to make up the shortfall, although a municipal accounting study in 1956 found that this grant was only providing 52 per cent of the revenue the city would have received from a direct tax assessment on the mining facilities.

The expansion of the city's boundaries that accompanied the creation of the regional municipality gave the city the power to levy property taxes on Inco's surface operations in Copper Cliff and Frood, but not on their underground facilities. This change improved the city's tax base, but the ongoing discrepancy has still been cited as a factor in municipal politics as recently as the 2006 municipal election. Even today, fully 75 per cent of the city's tax base comes from residential property taxes.

Also in 2006, both of the city's major mining companies, Inco and Falconbridge, were taken over by new owners: Inco was acquired by the Brazilian company CVRD (now renamed Vale), while Falconbridge was purchased by the Swiss company Xstrata. Xstrata donated the historic Edison Building, the onetime head office of Falconbridge, to the city in 2007 to serve as the new home of the municipal archives.

On September 19, 2008, a fire destroyed the historic Sudbury Steelworkers Hall on Frood Road.

Despite its unique challenges, however, the city has seen significant success in diversifying its economy. While mining remains an important industry, Sudbury also derives economic strength as a centre of commerce, government, tourism and science and technology research. Although Vale remains the city's largest single employer, it accounts for less than five per cent of the city's workforce, compared to 25 per cent or more in the 1970s, and the mining industry is no longer the city's largest sector of employment, being outranked by education, health care, public administration, retail trade, hospitality services and mining equipment manufacturing. A recent strike at Vale's operations, which began on July 13, 2009 and saw a tentative resolution announced on July 5, 2010, lasted longer than the devastating 1978 strike, but had a much more modest effect on the city's economy than the earlier action—in fact, the local rate of unemployment declined slightly during the strike.

Government

From its incorporation as a town until 1931, Sudbury consisted of a very small portion of McKim township, extending from Lake Ramsey in the south to the Flour Mill area in the north, and from a point east of today's Gatchell neighbourhood in the west to a point west of modern Minnow Lake in the east. The city annexed very small portions of McKim township at various times between 1931 and 1960, and in 1960 the city annexed the entirety of McKim township with the exception of Copper Cliff, and the western half of Neelon Township.

In 1973, provincially mandated restructuring of municipal government organized the city of Sudbury and surrounding towns into the Regional Municipality of Sudbury, which consisted of seven municipalities. The population figures cited next to each are for 1996, the last Canadian census before the amalgamated city came into effect:

City of Sudbury (92,059)

Town (city after 1997) of Valley East (23,537)

Town of Rayside-Balfour (16,050)

Town of Nickel Centre (13,017)

Town of Walden (10,292)

Town of Onaping Falls (5,277)

Town of Capreol (3,817)

Municipal responsibilities were distributed between the council of the Regional Municipality and the councils of the individual towns and cities. The region covered 2,607 square kilometres.

In 1979, Sudbury became the first city in Canada to install a TTY line in the mayor's office to help improve service to deaf citizens. The city also implemented a new 3-1-1 service in 2007.

The five towns and two cities of the region were amalgamated by provincial order on January 1, 2001 to become the city of Greater Sudbury. The previously unincorporated townships of Dill, Cleland, Fraleck, Parkin, Aylmer, Mackelcan, Rathbun and Scadding were also annexed into the new city.

The city is headed by a council and mayor. The current mayor of Greater Sudbury is Marianne Matichuk, who defeated John Rodriguez in the 2010 municipal election.

The main municipal office is at Tom Davies Square, named for a former chair of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury. Citizen service offices, which provide an access point for public services such as license applications, are also located in some of the suburban communities, often in the libraries or former town halls of the pre-amalgamation municipalities.

The city is represented federally by Members of Parliament Glenn Thibeault in the Sudbury riding, and Claude Gravelle in Nickel Belt. Their counterparts in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario are Rick Bartolucci in Sudbury and France Gélinas in Nickel Belt.

The provincial Ministry of Northern Development, Mines and Forestry has its head office in the city.

The municipally owned energy provider Greater Sudbury Utilities serves the city's urban core, while rural areas in the city continue to be served by Hydro One. An ongoing and controversial proposal that Greater Sudbury Hydro take over responsibility for all electrical power distribution in the entire city has been a significant political issue in the 2000s.

Communities

The name Greater Sudbury is almost exclusively a political designation. In common usage, the city is still generally referred to as Sudbury. The usage Greater City of Sudbury (rather than City of Greater Sudbury) is also heard on occasion, but is incorrect.

Outside of the region, the name Sudbury is still commonly understood to refer only to the former city of Sudbury, with the outlying communities often believed to remain distinct from the city. Some of the outlying communities, for example, still retain their own distinct postal and telephone exchange codes, and for several years after the amalgamation residents in many rural parts of the city still could not call other rural parts of the city without incurring long distance charges—Bell Canada did not expand local calling area service in the city until December 2007.

In local usage, however, the name Sudbury is more ambiguous—depending on the speaker, it may refer either to the city as a whole or exclusively to the urban core of old Sudbury. However, the names of the former suburban municipalities are still sometimes used to refer to the communities within their boundaries. Several of the city's community action networks, volunteer committees which are responsible for organizing and managing the city's recreational and cultural services in a specific community, retain the names and service boundaries of their pre-2001 municipalities—only the old city and the former town of Nickel Centre are divided into multiple CANs.

For more information on communities within the city, see the articles in Urban neighbourhoods of Sudbury, Capreol, Nickel Centre, Onaping Falls, Rayside-Balfour, Valley East, Walden and Wanup.

Geography

Topography

Sudbury is on the Canadian (Precambrian) Shield. With 330 lakes within its boundaries, Sudbury has more lakes than any other municipality in Canada. Among the most notable are Lake Wanapitei, the largest lake in the world completely contained within the boundaries of a single city, and Lake Ramsey, just a few kilometres south of downtown Sudbury, which held the same record before the municipal amalgamation in 2001 brought Lake Wanapitei fully inside the city limits.

The ore deposits in Sudbury are part of a large geological structure known as the Sudbury Basin, believed to be the remnants of a 1.85-billion year old meteorite impact crater. Sudbury's pentlandite, pyrite and pyrrhotite ores contain profitable amounts of many elements—primarily nickel and copper, but also including smaller amounts of cobalt, platinum, gold, silver, selenium and tellurium. It also contains an unusually high concentration of sulfur. Local smelting of the ore releases this sulfur into the atmosphere where it combines with water vapour to form sulfuric acid, contributing to acid rain.

As a result, Sudbury was widely (although not entirely accurately) known for many years as a wasteland. In parts of the city, vegetation was devastated both by acid rain and by logging to provide fuel for early smelting techniques. To a lesser extent, the area's ecology was also impacted by lumber camps in the area providing wood for the reconstruction of Chicago after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871—while other logging areas in Northeastern Ontario were also involved in that effort, the emergence of mining in the following decade made it significantly harder for new trees to grow to full maturity in the Sudbury area than elsewhere. The resulting erosion exposed bedrock, which was charred in most places to a pitted, dark black appearance. There was not a complete lack of vegetation in the region, however. Paper birch and wild blueberry patches are notable examples of plants which thrived in the acidic soils—and even during the worst years of the city's environmental damage, not all parts of the city were equally affected.

During the Apollo manned lunar exploration program, NASA astronauts trained in Sudbury to become familiar with shatter cones, a rare rock formation connected with meteorite impacts. However, the popular misconception that they were visiting Sudbury because it purportedly resembled the lifeless surface of the moon dogged the city for years—as recently as 2009, a CBC Radio journalist repeated the moonscape myth in a report aired on The Current, although the show subsequently corrected the error by interviewing NASA astronaut Fred Haise, who confirmed that he had been in Sudbury to study rock formations.

The construction of the Inco Superstack in 1972 dispersed the sulfuric acid over a much wider area, reducing the acidity of local precipitation and enabling the city to begin an environmental recovery program. In the late 1970s, private, public, and commercial interests combined to establish an unprecedented "regreening" effort. Lime was spread over the charred soil of the Sudbury region by hand and by aircraft. Seeds of wild grasses and other vegetation were also spread. As of 2006, 8.7 million new trees were planted in the city. More recently, the city has begun to rehabilitate the slag heaps that surround the Copper Cliff smelter area, with the planting of grass and trees.

The ecology of the Sudbury region has recovered dramatically, due both to the regreening program and improved mining practices. In 1992, Sudbury was one of twelve world cities given the Local Government Honours Award at the United Nations Earth Summit to honour the city's community-based environmental reclamation strategies. In 2007, Peter Mansbridge anchored an edition of the national news program The National from Sudbury, during a weeklong series profiling Canadian municipalities which had successfully implemented local environmental programs.

Stephen Monet, the manager of the city's environmental efforts, noted in early 2010 that the program had successfully rehabilitated 3,350 hectares of land in the city—however, he cautioned that the effort would need to continue or even be significantly expanded, as approximately 30,000 hectares of land have yet to be regreened.

The city's Nickel District Conservation Authority operates a large conservation area, the Lake Laurentian Conservation Area, in the city's south end. Other unique environmental projects in the city include the Fielding Bird Sanctuary, a protected area along Highway 17 near Lively which provides a managed natural habitat for birds, and a hiking and nature trail near Coniston which is named in honour of scientist Jane Goodall.

Seismic activity

Mining-related seismological activity is not uncommon in the region, although it rarely causes any significant damage—in the most notable such incident, the then-outlying community of Worthington was destroyed on October 4, 1927 when a rock shift caused part of the community to collapse into a mine shaft. No lives were lost in that incident, however, as a mine foreman had noticed the warning signs and successfully evacuated the community the previous evening. Similarly, on June 20, 1984, four miners at Falconbridge were killed in a rock burst which registered 3.4 on the Richter scale.

On November 29, 2006, the city was hit by a minor earthquake, which registered 4.1 on the Richter scale and had its epicentre approximately five kilometres west of Lively. It is believed that the movement began on the 7200 level of Creighton Mine, as ground stress worked its way through upper and lower levels along what is called the Creighton fault. No major damage was reported, although there were reports of the quake being felt as far away as Toronto. Seismologists confirmed in early December that the quake was most likely related to mining activity in the region.

Similarly, a tremor on September 11, 2008 which registered 3.0 on the Richter scale followed a planned blast at the city's North Mine.

Small earthquakes were also reported on March 13 and September 20, 2005.

Demographics

Prior to the 2001 amalgamation, the Regional Municipality of Sudbury was the largest Census Metropolitan Area in Northern Ontario. By itself, however, the city of Sudbury was the second largest city in the region, behind Thunder Bay. Since the amalgamation, however, Greater Sudbury is both the region's largest city and its largest CMA.

The population of Sudbury has declined slightly in recent years, due mostly to many young Sudburians moving to other parts of Canada, especially the southern cities of Ontario. In 2001, the total population of Greater Sudbury was 155,219, a drop of 6.1 percent from the regional municipality's 1996 population of 165,336. Approximately 18.3 percent of the population is under 14 years of age, while those over 65 number 13.8 percent. The average is 38.9 years of age.

In the 2006 census, the city's population increased to 157,857, a growth of 1.7 per cent over 2001. Of that population, 106,612 lived in the city's urban core, while the remaining 51,245 lived in more rural communities within the city limits.

Reported ethnic origin, 2001[32]

Ethnic origin Responses Percent

Canadian 74,945 48.8%
French 59,580 38.8%
English 30,295 19.7%
Irish         24,910 16.2%
Scottish 21,300 13.9%
Italian 12,025 7.8%
German 10,180 6.6%
Ukrainian 7,140 4.7%
Finnish 6,865 4.5%
North
American
Indian 5,975 3.9%

Multiple responses included; total responses 153,510.

Sudbury is largely a bilingual city. Sudbury has a large francophone population, mostly due to the significant number of inhabitants of French origin. Some 62.3% of the population speak English as their first language, followed by French at 28.2%.

The majority of residents in Sudbury are Christian. Almost 90 percent of the population claims various Christian denominations, the vast majority being Roman Catholic: 64.6%, Protestant: 23.1%, and other Christian groups numbering 1.6%. Other religions such as Islam, Judaism, and Hinduism constitute less than one per cent. According to the 2006 Census, Greater Sudbury is 91.8% White, 6.1% Aboriginal, and 2.1% Visible Minorities.

Because it is wholly surrounded by the city and thus exclaved from the Sudbury District, the Wahnapitae First Nation reserve is also counted as part of Greater Sudbury's census division, which had a separate population figure of 157,909 in the 2006 census — however, this figure represents 157,857 residents of the city and 52 residents of the reserve, and should not be conflated with the population of the city. The Whitefish Lake First Nation reserve is contiguous with the Sudbury District, however, and thus is not counted as part of the city's census division, but is part of the city's Census Metropolitan Area population of 158,258.

Transportation

Highway 17 is the main branch of the Trans-Canada Highway, connecting the city to points east and west. An approximately 21-kilometre (15 mile) segment of Highway 17, from Mikkola to Whitefish, is freeway. The provincial Ministry of Transportation has announced tentative plans to extend the Highway 17 freeway east to Coniston along the Southwest and Southeast Bypasses in the mid-2010s, near the completion date of the Highway 400 construction. Studies have also been completed on the freeway segment's westerly extension to McKerrow, although no construction timetable has been set. In the longer term, the whole highway may eventually be subsumed into Highway 417, although to date no formal project planning has taken place and that is likely decades away. The former alignment of Highway 17 through the city is now Municipal Road 55.

Highway 69, also a branch of the Trans-Canada Highway, leads south to Parry Sound, where it connects to the Highway 400 freeway to Toronto. Highway 400 is currently being extended to Greater Sudbury; although the timetable may be subject to change, this construction is scheduled for completion in 2017. As of 2010, the 20-kilometre segment of Highway 69 from Richard Lake in the city's south end to Trout Lake Road in Estaire follows a new freeway alignment; construction on the next segment, from Estaire to Highway 637, began in 2008 for a scheduled completion in 2012. Highway 69 formerly continued northward to Capreol—this northerly route has also been decommissioned by the province, although portions of it are still referred to locally as "Highway 69 North".

Highway 144 leads north to Highway 101 just west of downtown Timmins.

Greater Sudbury is the only census division in Northern Ontario that maintains a system of numbered municipal roads, similar to the county road system in the southern part of the province.

The Greater Sudbury Airport is served by regional carrier lines such as Bearskin and Air Canada Jazz. Sunwing Vacations also offers direct flights to Orlando, Puerto Plata and Varadero. The airport is also undergoing talks with Northwest Airlines to provide service from the city to one or more U.S. destinations directly. Porter Airlines now offers service between Greater Sudbury and Toronto City Airport.

Sudbury is also served by Via Rail, with The Canadian between Toronto and Vancouver and the Sudbury – White River train. It is also served by inter-city bus services Greyhound Canada and Ontario Northland Motor Coach Services. The city also maintains a public transit system, Greater Sudbury Transit.

In the Canadian Automobile Association's annual Ontario's Worst Roads survey for 2007, four roads in Sudbury were ranked in the top 20, including Lansing Avenue, Notre Dame Avenue, Bancroft Drive and Vermilion Lake Road, which was ranked as the worst road in the province. Sudbury appeared on the list more times than any other city. In the 2010 survey, only Vermilion Lake Road ranked in the Top 20; conversely, three roads in the city — the Northwest Bypass, Falconbridge Road and the new alignment of Highway 69 — ranked among the 20 best roads in the province.

Education

Greater Sudbury is home to three postsecondary institutions: Laurentian University, a bilingual university, Cambrian College, an English college of applied arts and technology, and Collège Boréal, a francophone college with additional campuses throughout Northern Ontario. (Boréal does, however, offer a few trade courses in English.)

Laurentian University is also home to the Sudbury campus of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine. NOSM was the first medical school to open in Canada in 30 years, opening its doors in September 2005. Laurentian is also undergoing the planning process of opening the Northern Ontario School of Architecture, hopefully to be opened in 2010. This school would most likely be located on a separate campus in downtown Sudbury. Laurentian is also tentatively planning to open a law school at some point in the future.

English-language public schooling is provided by the Rainbow District School Board. The board operates 30 elementary and seven secondary schools throughout the city, plus one school for students with special needs and the Cecil Facer Youth Centre for young offenders. The Sudbury Catholic District School Board offers publicly funded English-language Catholic schools, with 20 elementary schools, four high schools and an adult education centre. French-language public schools are administered by the Conseil scolaire de district du Grand Nord de l'Ontario with nine elementary and three secondary schools. Finally, the French-language catholic board is the Conseil scolaire de district catholique du Nouvel-Ontario, with 18 elementary and four secondary schools.

There are also two Christian private schools in the city (Glad Tidings Academy and King Christian Academy), as well two Montessori schools (King Montessori Academy and the Montessori School of Sudbury).

Culture

Franco-Ontarians

Approximately 30 percent of the city's population is Franco-Ontarian, particularly in the former municipalities of Valley East and Rayside-Balfour. The city has the largest proportion of francophones to the general population of any major city in Ontario. Sudbury also has the second largest francophone community of any city in English Canada, ranking behind only Ottawa.

As a result, Sudbury is a very important centre in Franco-Ontarian cultural history, and the francophone community of Sudbury has played a central role in developing and maintaining many of the cultural institutions of francophone Ontario. Those institutions include the Théâtre du Nouvel-Ontario, La Nuit sur l'étang, La Galerie du Nouvel-Ontario, Le Centre franco-ontarien de folklore and the Prise de parole publishing company.

The Franco-Ontarian flag, as well, calls Sudbury home. It was first flown in 1975 at Laurentian University, after being created by a group of teachers at the university. As of 2006, it is now permanently flown at Tom Davies Square.

The issue of flying the Franco-Ontarian flag in Sudbury has provoked considerable controversy among local politicians. In 2003, the city government voted against flying the flag at Tom Davies Square for Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Those who opposed the raising of the Franco-Ontarian flag on public property claimed that it would be inappropriate for the city government to display a symbol representative of only a portion of the city's population.[citation needed] Under the new mayorship of John Rodriguez, the Franco-Ontarian flag was officially raised at Tom Davies Square on December 1, 2006.

Visitor attractions

Sudbury has lent its mining heritage to two major tourist attractions: Science North, an interactive science museum built atop an ancient earthquake fault on the shore of Lake Ramsey, and Dynamic Earth, an earth sciences exhibition which is also home to the Big Nickel, one of Sudbury's most famous landmarks. A mining heritage monument also overlooks the city's Bell Park.

Another city landmark, the Inco Superstack, is the tallest freestanding chimney in the Western hemisphere, and the second tallest structure in Canada after the CN Tower.

The city is also home to the Greater Sudbury Heritage Museums, a network of historical community museums.

In 2007, the city undertook a community project which saw the downtown Paris Street bridge retrofitted with 72 flagpoles, each of which will permanently display the flag of a world nation demographically represented among the population of Sudbury. In September 2007, the bridge was officially renamed Bridge of Nations. Ten more flagpoles were installed in 2009, bringing the project to its final total of 82 flags.

Science and technology

Sudbury was one of the first Canadian cities to plan and implement its own digital telecommunications strategy. Beginning in 1996, the city began constructing a fiber-optic network which saw over 400 kilometres of cable laid down to serve the city's business and citizen populations. This has allowed the general public to enjoy broadband internet at higher speeds than many other cities. Traditionally, the highest speed on broadband available to the public is 6Mbit/s. Residents within the urban core can get resident broadband access at 16Mbit/s. In November 2005, the city was named one of the world's "Smart 21 Communities" by the Intelligent Community Forum, a worldwide project to honour technological innovation. Other named cities included Waterloo, Ottawa, Philadelphia, Dubai, Seoul, London, Manchester and Melbourne.

The Creighton Mine site in Sudbury is the site of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the lowest background radiation particle detector in the world.

Sudbury hosted the International Physics Olympiad in 1997.

As of 2008, a cluster of over 400 mining supply and service companies is located in an economic corridor anchored between Sudbury and North Bay. The city is also home to a number of public and private firms pursuing research and development in new mining technologies, including the Mining Innovation Rehabilitation and Applied Research Corporation (MIRARCO), the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology (NORCAT), and the Centre for Excellence in Mining Innovation (CEMI). One notable field of research being pursued in the Sudbury area is the use of robotics and laser technologies to permit the mining of remote and inaccessible areas, including the ocean floor.

Retail

With retail businesses in the city increasingly locating outside of the downtown core, particularly in the Four Corners, Kingsway and Lasalle Boulevard areas, the city has struggled in recent years to maintain a vibrant downtown. Recent projects have included the creation of Market Square, a farmer's and craft market, the redevelopment of the Rainbow Centre mall, streetscape beautification projects, and the creation of the Downtown Village Development Corporation, not-fot-profit organization dedicated to business attraction and residential development downtown. At various times, city councilors and community groups have proposed that the city purchase the CPR stockyards west of Elgin Street to expand the downtown area. The Downtown Village Development Corporation was actively looking at this possibility in 2008. Today, this effort is being led by Imagine Sudbury, a group of community-minded volunteers who see the rail-yards downtown as the key to Sudbury’s future development.

Sudbury is one of the few cities remaining in Ontario where retail stores are still not legally permitted to open on Boxing Day, December 26. Instead, stores in Sudbury begin their post-Christmas Boxing Day sales on December 27. In recent years, some major chain retailers in the city have occasionally chosen to disregard the municipal bylaw, opening on December 26 and voluntarily accepting the risk of a fine. However, this may change in 2010 or 2011, as the 2010 municipal election was won by Marianne Matichuk, who made permitting Boxing Day shopping one of her main campaign pledges.

Arts and theatre

The city is home to two art galleries, the Art Gallery of Sudbury and La Galerie du Nouvel-Ontario. Both are dedicated primarily to Canadian art, especially but not exclusively artists from Northern Ontario.

The city has two professional theatre companies, the anglophone Sudbury Theatre Centre and the francophone Théâtre du Nouvel-Ontario. The STC has its own theatre venue downtown, while the TNO stages its productions at La salle André Paiement, a venue located on the campus of Collège Boréal. Theatre productions are also staged by students at Laurentian University's affiliated Thornloe faculty, by a community theatre company at Cambrian College, as well as by high school drama students at Sudbury Secondary School, Lo-Ellen Park Secondary School and École secondaire MacDonald-Cartier.

An annual film festival, Cinéfest, is also held in the city each September.

The city is investigating the possibility of an 1,800-seat performing arts centre, in addition to an arts and entertainment district in the downtown core.

Music

In 2006 and 2007, community discussion has centred on the creation of a performing arts centre. Sudbury has some trouble attracting concert tours in recent years, in part because, since the demise of the Grand Theatre in the 1990s, the city lacks a suitable mid-size concert venue for bands that have outgrown the bar circuit but are not yet able to fill venues such as the Sudbury Community Arena. However, despite this, the city has managed to book many high-profile performing acts in 2008, including Michael Bublé, Elton John, 50 Cent, Avril Lavigne, the Backstreet Boys, Girlicious, Akon, Kenny Rogers and Bob Dylan. Bell Park's outdoor Grace Hartman Amphitheatre and Laurentian University's Fraser Auditorium are sometimes used for summer bookings, although neither is available year-round. Additionally, the relatively small size of the Northern Ontario market means that major touring artists will appear, if they play any venues in the region at all, at either the Sudbury Community Arena or Sault Ste. Marie's Essar Centre, but not both.

Smaller touring indie rock bands, as well as some local musicians, are usually booked at The Townehouse Tavern, while local bands play a number of small music venues across the city.

The city is also home to annual music festivals, including Sudbury Summerfest, the Northern Lights Festival Boréal and La Nuit sur l'étang. The local Sudbury Symphony Orchestra performs six annual concerts of classical music, staged at the city's Glad Tidings Tabernacle.

Although local bands in the Sudbury area play music in a variety of genres, from rock to punk to country to heavy metal to folk to hip hop, the city's most nationally and internationally successful artists, such as Robert Paquette, Kate Maki, Nathan Lawr, Gil Grand, Kevin Closs, CANO, Jake Mathews, Loma Lyns, Alex J. Robinson and Chuck Labelle, have predominantly been in the country, folk and country-rock genres. Another notable Canadian country rock band, Ox, was launched in Vancouver by two musicians from Sudbury, Ryan Bishops and Mark Browning, although the band has more recently moved back to Sudbury. The rap metal bands Project Wyze and Konflit dramatiK have also had some success.

Rock guitarist Pat Travers, originally from Toronto, also lived in Sudbury for a number of years during his early career.

LGBT community

The city first held its Sudbury Pride parade in 1997. The annual event takes place in August. Zig's, the city's prominent gay business, is the only gay bar in all of Northern Ontario. Early gay venues in the city included the now-demolished Nickel Range Hotel in the 1960s, the Peter Piper Inn in the 1970s and the now-demolished Frontenac Hotel in the 1970s and 1980s, before the city's first standalone gay bar, R Place on Lasalle Boulevard, opened in the late 1980s. D-Bar, a new downtown venue, opened in 1992, and was active until Zig's opened in 1997.

Sudbury in art and literature

Notable works of fiction set primarily or partially in Sudbury or its former suburbs include Paul Quarrington's novel Logan in Overtime, Robert J. Sawyer's Neanderthal Parallax trilogy, Alistair MacLeod's novel No Great Mischief, and Jean-Marc Dalpé's play 1932, la ville du nickel and his short story collection Contes sudburois. The city is also fictionalized as "Chinookville" in several books by American comedy writer Jack Douglas.

One of Stompin' Tom Connors' most famous songs, "Sudbury Saturday Night", is inspired by the city and its hard rock mining image. Quebec musician Mononc' Serge also wrote a song about the city, titled "Sudbury", on his 2001 album Mon voyage au Canada.

Artist A. Y. Jackson's 1953 painting "Spring on the Onaping River" depicts a waterfall on the Onaping River between Dowling and Onaping. A scenic lookout on Highway 144 enables a view of the waterfall. The painting itself hung at Sudbury Secondary School from 1955 to 1974, when it was stolen from the school grounds shortly after Jackson's death and has never subsequently been recovered.

Film and television production

Bruce McDonald's film Roadkill was filmed and set partly in Sudbury.

March Entertainment's studio in Sudbury has produced a number of animated television series, including Chilly Beach, Maple Shorts, Yam Roll and Dex Hamilton: Alien Entomologist.

In 2007, Ontario's French language public broadcaster, TFO, announced that it would produce a new comedy series, Météo+. The series, which premiered in 2008, is both produced and set in Sudbury, and is co-written by an alumnus of École Secondaire Macdonald-Cartier, Robert Marinier.

In the spring of 2010, Les Productions R. Charbonneau (the company responsible for bringing Météo+ to Sudbury) announced it would be producing three seasons of a new show, Les Bleus de Ramville, about hockey fans in the fictional small town of Ramville. The show is written by the same team as Météo+.

Inner City Films, a film and television production company owned by Sudbury native Robert Adetuyi and his brothers Tom, Amos and Alfons, has established a production office in Sudbury. The forthcoming film High Chicago, starring Colin Salmon, began production in Sudbury in 2010.

Sudbury is also home to the Science North Production Team, an award-winning producer of documentary films and multimedia presentations for museums.

Media

As the largest city in Northeastern Ontario, Greater Sudbury is the region's primary media centre. Due to the relatively small size of the region's individual media markets, most of the region is served at least partially by Sudbury-based media—CICI-TV produces almost all local programming on the CTV Northern Ontario system, and the CBC Radio stations CBCS-FM and CBON-FM broadcast to the entire region through extensive rebroadcaster networks. As well, most of the commercial radio stations in Northeastern Ontario's smaller cities simulcast programming produced in Sudbury for at least a portion of their programming schedules, particularly in weekend and evening slots.

Health care

Greater Sudbury serves as the health care centre for much of northeastern Ontario through the Sudbury Regional Hospital. Sudbury is also the site of the Regional Cancer Program, which treats cancer patients from across the north. In 1968, the first successful coronary artery bypass surgery in Canada was performed at Sudbury Memorial Hospital.

Adult mental health services are also provided to the area through the Sudbury Regional Hospital, primarily at the Kirkwood site (formerly the Sudbury Algoma Hospital) and at the Cedar site downtown. Children's mental health services are provided through the Regional Children's Psychiatric Centre operated by the Northeast Mental Health Centre, located onsite at the Kirkwood Site of the Sudbury Regional Hospital.

Emergency services

Greater Sudbury is served by the Greater Sudbury Police Service,[53] headquartered in downtown Sudbury. There is also a detachment of the Ontario Provincial Police located in the McFarlane Lake area of the city's south end.

Greater Sudbury Emergency Medical Services provide prehospital paramedic services. Two levels of paramedics work in Greater Sudbury, primary care and advanced care paramedics. There are over 150 full-time and part-time paramedics. EMS operates from 10 bases throughout the Sudbury area, as well as a central headquarters in Azilda.

Greater Sudbury Fire Services operates from 25 fire stations located throughout the city, with a combination of full-time and paid part-time firefighters. Prior to the municipal amalgamation of 2001, most of the suburban towns were served by separate volunteer fire departments, which were amalgamated into the citywide service as part of the municipal restructuring. Police and EMS services, however, were provided by a single region-wide system prior to amalgamation.

Sports

The Sudbury Wolves of the Ontario Hockey League play in the city, at the Sudbury Community Arena. The city is also home to a harness racing track, located in Azilda, called Sudbury Downs. That facility, although not a full casino, also has slot machines.

Laurentian University is represented in the Canadian Interuniversity Sport league by the Laurentian Voyageurs and the Laurentian Lady Vees. Cambrian College is represented in the Canadian Colleges Athletic Association by the Cambrian Golden Shield, and Collège Boréal is represented by the Boréal Vipères. High school students compete in the Sudbury District Secondary School Athletic Association (SDSSAA), which is a division of Northern Ontario Secondary School Athletics (NOSSA).

The city hosted the IAAF World Junior Championships in Athletics in 1988. Sudbury also played host to the Brier, Canada's annual men's curling championships, in 1953 and 1983, and to the 2001 Scott Tournament of Hearts, the women's curling championship. Sudbury has also been chosen to host the 2010 Ontario Summer Games, a prestigious sports event featuring competitive track and field, team, and water sports.

The Sudbury Spartans football club have played in the Northern Football Conference since 1954. The team was originally known as the Hardrocks in honour of the city's mining industry. However, then coach Sid Forster believed that the name "Hardrocks" sounded too much like a street gang and the name was changed to the Spartans in 1967.

The city is also investigating the possibility of building a new sports centre, set to include four NHL-sized ice pads (one of which will be a signature rink with a seating capacity of 1200 and an indoor running track), indoor pool, multi-use space, tennis dome, gymnastics centre, a restaurant, two multi-use grass fields, two artificial turf fields, multi-use outdoor trails, skate park, basketball court and playground.

The Trans Canada Trail passes through the city, and the Voyageur Hiking Trail aims to extend its trail eastward to meet area hiking trails.

Sister cities
Gomel, Belarus
Kokkola/Karleby, Finland

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